183 Summary

Dinesh Ramoo

Key Takeaways

  • An individual who has sustained either (1) irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions, or (2) irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem, is dead.
  • Social death occurs when others begin to dehumanize and withdraw from someone who is terminally ill or has been diagnosed with a terminal illness.
  • Acute and chronic respiratory diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of death in Canada.
  • Curative care is designed to overcome and cure disease and illness.
  • Palliative care focuses on providing comfort and relief from physical and emotional pain to patients throughout their illness, even while being treated.
  • Advanced care planning (ACP) refers to all documents that pertain to end-of-life care. These include advance directives and medical orders.
  • Advance directives include documents that mention a health care agent and living wills. These are initiated by the patient.
  • Living wills are written or video statements that outline the health care initiates the person wishes under certain circumstances.
  • Durable power of attorney for health care names the person who should make health care decisions in the event that the patient is incapacitated.
  • Medical orders are crafted by a medical professional on behalf of a seriously ill patient.
  • Euthanasia is defined as intentionally ending one’s life when suffering from a terminal illness or severe disability.
  • The Government of Canada announced in March 17, 2021 that medical assistance in dying (MAID) was officially in force.
  • Funeral rites are expressions of loss that reflect personal and cultural beliefs about the meaning of death and the afterlife.
  • Grief is the normal process of reacting to a loss. Grief can be in response to a physical loss, such as a death, or a social loss including a relationship or job.
  • Bereavement is the period after a loss during which grief and mourning occurs.
  • Mourning is the process by which people adapt to a loss.
  • Kübler-Ross describes five stages of loss (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) experienced by someone who faces the news of their impending death.
  • The dual-process model takes into consideration that bereaved individuals move back and forth between grieving and preparing for life without their loved one.


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