58 Preschool

Dinesh Ramoo

Evidence suggested that “process quality, that is the children’s everyday social, emotional, physical, and instructional interactions with staff and other children, is the primary driver of gains in children’s development” (OECD, 2014). In 2018, Canada participated in an international comparative review of process quality in early childhood education and care settings. The federal government, along with provincial governments in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Alberta, engaged in peer-learning activities with other countries. This was done in order to explore policy frameworks and decisions that can support and enhance childhood education.
Children playing on plastic rockers in a classroom setting.
Figure 4.16: Children in class

The first recommendation for a national childcare program in Canada was made in 1970 by the Royal Commission on the Status of Women. In the past twenty years, several intergovernmental agreements focused on children were initiated, including: the First Ministers Early Childhood Development Initiative (2001); the 2003 and the 2017 Multilateral Early Learning and Child Care (ELCC) Framework Agreements; and the 2017 Indigenous Early Learning and Child Care Framework. By 2021, all provinces and territories are either implementing, piloting, or developing early learning frameworks. Canada’s provinces and territories also recognize the role of Elders in preserving Indigenous knowledge and maintaining the oral transmission of knowledge.

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