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38 Erikson’s Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French
As the child begins to walk and talk, an interest in independence or autonomy replaces a concern for trust. The toddler tests the limits of what can be touched, said, and explored. Erikson (1982) believed that toddlers should be allowed to explore their environment freely, as safety allows and in so doing will develop a sense of independence that will later grow to self-esteem, initiative, and overall confidence. If a caregiver is overly anxious about the toddler’s actions for fear that the child will get hurt or violate others’ expectations, the caregiver can give the child the message that they should be ashamed of their behaviour and instill a sense of doubt in their own abilities. Parenting advice based on these ideas would be to keep your toddler safe, but let them learn by doing.