In reality, many older couples find greater satisfaction in their sex life than they did when they were younger. They have fewer distractions, more time and privacy, no worries about getting pregnant, and greater intimacy with a lifelong partner (National Institute on Aging, 2013). Results from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project indicated that 72 percent of men and 45.5 percent of women aged fifty-two to seventy-two reported being sexually active (Karraker, DeLamater, and Schwarz, 2011). Additionally, the National Survey of Sexual Health data indicated that 20 to 30 percent of individuals remain sexually active well into their eighties (Schick et al., 2010). However, there are issues that occur in older adults that can adversely affect their enjoyment of healthy sexual relationships.
Causes of Sexual Problems
According to the National Institute on Aging (2013), chronic illnesses including arthritis (joint pain), diabetes (erectile dysfunction), heart disease (difficulty achieving orgasm for both sexes), stroke (paralysis), and dementia (inappropriate sexual behaviour) can all adversely affect sexual functioning. Hormonal changes, physical disabilities, surgeries, and medicines can also affect a senior’s ability to participate in and enjoy sex. How one feels about sex can also affect performance. For example, a woman who is unhappy about her appearance as she ages may think her partner will no longer find her attractive. A focus on youthful physical beauty for women may get in the way of her enjoyment of sex. Likewise, most men have a problem with erectile dysfunction (ED) once in a while, and some may fear that ED will become a more common problem as they age. If there is a decline in sexual activity for a heterosexual couple, it is typically due to a decline in the male’s physical health (Erber and Szuchman, 2015).
Overall, the best way to experience a healthy sex life in later life is to keep sexually active while aging. However, the lack of an available partner can affect heterosexual women’s participation in a sexual relationship. Beginning at age forty, there are more women than men in the population, and the ratio becomes 2 to 1 at age eighty-five (Karraker et al., 2011). Because older men tend to pair with younger women when they become widowed or divorced, this also decreases the pool of available men for older women (Erber and Szuchman, 2015). In fact, a change in marital status does not result in a decline in the sexual behaviour of men aged fifty-seven to eighty-five, but it does result in a decline for similar-aged women (Karraker et al., 2011
Key players in improving the quality of life among older adults will be those adults themselves. By exercising, reducing stress, stopping smoking, limiting alcohol consumption, and eating more fruits and vegetables, older adults can expect to live longer and more active lives (He et al., 2005). Stress reduction, both in late adulthood and earlier in life, is also crucial. The reduction of societal stressors can promote active life expectancy. In the last forty years, smoking rates have decreased, but obesity has increased, and physical activity has only modestly increased.