The Germinal Period
The germinal period (about fourteen days in length) lasts from conception to implantation of the fertilized egg in the lining of the uterus (Figure 2.4). At ejaculation, millions of sperm are released into the vagina, but only a few reach the egg and typically only one fertilizes the egg. Once a single sperm has entered the wall of the egg, the wall becomes hard and prevents other sperm from entering. After the sperm has entered the egg, the tail of the sperm breaks off and the head of the sperm, containing the genetic information from the father, unites with the nucleus of the egg. It is typically fertilized in the top section of the fallopian tube and continues its journey to the uterus. As a result, a new cell is formed. This cell, containing the combined genetic information from both parents, is referred to as a zygote.
During this time, the organism begins cell division through mitosis. After five days of mitosis there are one hundred cells, which is now called a blastocyst. The blastocyst consists of both an inner and outer group of cells. The inner group of cells, or embryonic disk will become the embryo, while the outer group of cells, or trophoblast, becomes the support system that nourishes the developing organism. This stage ends when the blastocyst fully implants into the uterine wall (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2015).
Mitosis is a fragile process and fewer than one half of all zygotes survive beyond the first two weeks (Hall, 2004). Some of the reasons for this include that the egg and sperm do not join properly so their genetic material does not combine, there is too little or damaged genetic material, the zygote does not replicate, or the blastocyst does not implant into the uterine wall. The failure rate is higher for in vitro conceptions. Figure 2.5 illustrates the journey of the ova from its release to its fertilization, cell duplication, and implantation into the uterine lining.
The Embryonic Period
By the third week, the blastocyst has implanted in the uterine wall. Upon implantation this multicellular organism is called an embryo. Now blood vessels grow, forming the placenta. The placenta is a structure connected to the uterus that provides nourishment and oxygen from the mother to the developing embryo via the umbilical cord. During this period, cells continue to differentiate. Growth during prenatal development occurs in two major directions: from head to tail, called cephalocaudal development; and from the midline outward, referred to as proximodistal development. This means that those structures nearest the head develop before those nearest the feet and those structures nearest the torso develop before those away from the center of the body (such as hands and fingers). The head develops in the fourth week and the precursor to the heart begins to pulse. In the early stages of the embryonic period, gills and a tail are apparent. However, by the end of this stage they disappear and the organism takes on a more human appearance. About 20 percent of organisms fail during the embryonic period, usually due to gross chromosomal abnormalities. As in the case of the germinal period, often the mother does not yet know that she is pregnant. It is during this stage that the major structures of the body are taking form, making the embryonic period the time when the organism is most vulnerable to the greatest amount of damage if exposed to harmful substances. Potential mothers are not often aware of the risks they introduce to the developing embryo during this time. The embryo is approximately 1 inch in length and weighs about 4 grams at the end of eight weeks. The embryo can move and respond to touch at this time.
The Fetal Period
From the ninth week until birth, the organism is referred to as a fetus. During this stage, the major structures are continuing to develop. By the third month, the fetus has all its body parts, including external genitalia. In the following weeks, the fetus will develop hair, nails, and teeth, and the excretory and digestive systems will continue to develop. The fetus is about 3 inches long and weighs about 28 grams.
During the period from four to six months, the eyes become more sensitive to light and hearing develops. The respiratory system continues to develop, and reflexes such as sucking, swallowing, and hiccupping, develop during the fifth month. Cycles of sleep and wakefulness are present at this time as well. The first chance of survival outside the womb, known as the age of viability is reached at about twenty-four weeks (Morgan, Goldenberg, and Schulkin, 2008). Many practitioners hesitate to resuscitate before twenty-four weeks. The majority of the neurons in the brain have developed by twenty-four weeks, although they are still rudimentary, and the glial or nurse cells that support neurons continue to grow. At this time the fetus can also feel pain (Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1997).
Between the seventh and ninth months, the fetus is primarily preparing for birth. It is exercising its muscles and its lungs begin to expand and contract. The fetus gains about 5 pounds and 7 inches during this last trimester of pregnancy, and during the eighth month a layer of fat develops under the skin. This layer of fat serves as insulation and helps the baby regulate body temperature after birth.
At around thirty-six weeks the fetus is almost ready for birth. It weighs about 6 pounds and is about 18.5 inches long. By week thirty-seven, all of the fetus’s organ systems are developed enough that it could survive outside the mother’s uterus without many of the risks associated with premature birth. The fetus continues to gain weight and grow in length until approximately forty weeks. By then the fetus has very little room to move around and birth becomes imminent. The progression through the stages is shown in Figure 2.8.
Prenatal Brain Development
Prenatal brain development begins in the third gestational week with the differentiation of stem cells, which are capable of producing all the different cells that make up the brain (Stiles and Jernigan, 2010). The location of these stem cells in the embryo is referred to as the neural plate. By the end of the third week, two ridges appear along the neural plate, first forming the neural groove and then the neural tube. The open region in the centre of the neural tube forms the brain’s ventricles and spinal canal. By the end of the embryonic period, or week eight, the neural tube has further differentiated into the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
Brain development during the fetal period involves neuron production, migration, and differentiation. From the early fetal period until mid-gestation, most of the eighty-five billion neurons have been generated and many have already migrated to their brain positions. Neurogenesis, or the formation of neurons, is largely completed after five months of gestation. One exception is in the hippocampus, which continues to develop neurons throughout life. Neurons that form the neocortex, or the layer of cells that lie on the surface of the brain, migrate to their location in an orderly way. Neural migration is mostly completed by twenty-nine weeks. Once in position, neurons begin to produce dendrites and axons that begin to form the neural networks responsible for information processing. Regions of the brain that contain the cell bodies are referred to as the grey matter because they look grey in appearance. The axons that form the neural pathways make up the white matter because they are covered in myelin, a fatty substance that is white in appearance. Myelin aids in both the insulation and efficiency of neural transmission. Although cell differentiation is complete at birth, the growth of dendrites, axons, and synapses continue for years.