Myths, Stereotypes, and Racism

Read the following 9 statements about Indigenous Peoples, and select “Myth” or “Fact.” As you go  through the remainder of Section 3, think about these myths.

Note: If you are not using the online version of the Foundations Guide, you can find the Myth or Fact questions and answers in Appendix C.

An interactive or media element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here.1

Where Do the Myths Come From?

Although the situation is improving, far too many Canadians do not know the histories, cultures, or  current issues facing Indigenous Peoples. There are many reasons for this:

  • Years of government policies have worked to assimilate Indigenous Peoples into mainstream Canadian society.
  • Reserves have isolated First Nations people from Canadian society.
  • Very little is taught about the true history of Canada and Indigenous Peoples.
  • Film, television, and media often perpetuate Indigenous stereotypes.


In order to ensure that there is understanding, respect, and appreciation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, both need to meet, work together, and learn about each other. Otherwise, non-Indigenous people may learn about Indigenous Peoples only from the news and other sources. Usually  what people know, or think they know, comes from the images and characters they see or read about in  movies, TV shows, magazines, books, and news reports.

Stereotypes do great harm. Whether you are Indigenous or non-Indigenous, you will often hear  negative stereotypes about Indigenous Peoples, but you might not always have enough information to  see past the stereotypes and see past the racism to find the truth.

The Canadian school system has contributed to these stereotypes, as very little is taught about  Indigenous Peoples and their real history. This is changing. For example, Manitoba Education has created K-12 resources for the inclusion of Indigenous perspectives. They also provide curriculum resources for schools who wish to include Indigenous language instruction (Manitoba Education, n.d.) Brandon School Division has a number of initiatives and various programming supporting  learners.  Some examples include Treaty education, blanket exercises, Indigenous language courses, and a land-based learning course.

Indigenous stories and histories in the mainstream media have normally been told from a non-Indigenous point of view. This can lead to misunderstandings that can harm the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people.

The Hollywood film industry has made millions from telling stories about “cowboys and Indians.”  In TV shows and movies, Indigenous characters are often played by non-Indigenous people and the representations of Indigenous Peoples are rarely accurate. Instead, filmmakers use stereotypes of  Indigenous Peoples.

Negative stereotypes of Indigenous Peoples are still widespread in sports, though there is a growing  movement to replace team names and mascots that perpetuate the stereotypes.

Overcoming the stereotypes  

Indigenous people work in the media—in newspapers, radio, book publishing, film, web journalism, and television. The Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN) is a cable television network in Canada that produces and broadcasts programs by and for Indigenous Peoples. These films and TV shows can help break down some of the negative stereotypes. In Brandon, Westman Communications Group has an access channel that broadcasts Stories of Our Land, a show that features interviews with local Knowledge Keepers and Elders, hosted by Jason Gobeil.

For non-Indigenous Canadians, the visible and positive presence of Indigenous Peoples in the media is a real alternative to stereotypes. Real people, places, and cultures are much more complex than  stereotypes.

Getting to know Indigenous Peoples and learning about their real history and contemporary reality  will help to break down negative stereotypes and can heal some of the damage. Many people are now  working to ensure that future generations of children in Canada will receive more complete and accurate  views of Indigenous Peoples and a more truthful account of Canadian history in their education.


The term microaggressions is sometimes used to describe the insults, dismissals, or casual degradations  a dominant culture inflicts on a marginalized group of people. Often they are a form of unintended  discrimination, but one that has the same effect as willful discrimination. Usually perpetrators intend no offence and are unaware they are causing harm. Generally, they are well-meaning and consider  themselves to be unprejudiced.

Many Indigenous people experience microaggressions on a regular basis. They are often statements that:

  • repeat or affirm stereotypes about Indigenous Peoples or subtly demean them
  • position the dominant non-Indigenous culture as normal and the Indigenous culture as  abnormal
  • express disapproval of or discomfort with Indigenous Peoples
  • assume all Indigenous Peoples are the same
  • minimize the existence of discrimination against Indigenous Peoples
  • deny the perpetrator’s own bias toward Indigenous Peoples
  • minimize real conflict between the Indigenous Peoples and the dominant non-Indigenous  culture

People who experience microaggressions may feel anger, frustration, or exhaustion from feeling that  they must “represent” their group or suppress their own cultural expression and beliefs.

Watch the video on Wab Kinew’s Soapbox (1 min, 45 sec)2.

Cultural Appropriation

Cultural appropriation is the adoption or use of culturally significant items by someone from another  culture. During this process the original meaning is usually lost or distorted.

Pop culture has a history of using Indigenous symbols to sell fashion. Traditional Indigenous clothing  with deep spiritual significance is marketed as “cute,” “sexy,” or “cool.”

Cultural appropriation is offensive when someone from a dominant culture exploits the cultural and  intellectual property of a marginalized group of people and even more so when the dominant culture has outlawed many of the cultural items that are now being marketed. Here are some examples of cultural appropriation:

    • providing ceremonies, such as sweat lodges, by unqualified people, usually marketed as  a wellness or spa-like experience, or non-Indigenous people selling traditional “medicines”
    • use of Indigenous artists’ designs in manufacturing of fashion, without asking permission and/or paying the artist for their work
    • names or logos for sports teams that make use of stereotypes

Cultural appreciation differs from cultural appropriation in significant ways. It is okay to purchase items made by Indigenous artists and craftspersons, provided they are compensated directly or through a licensing agreement. It’s also appropriate to attend ceremonies that are open to all, provided one respects the sanctity of ceremony and the leaders who provide it. It is also appropriate and respectful to read Indigenous literatures, watch Indigenous-produced videos and live performances, and purchase and play video games created by Indigenous game developers. By all means, eat at restaurants that serve Indigenous food prepared by Indigenous chefs and their staff. If we stop and think about the purpose of what we are doing, it is not that difficult to determine the difference between cultural appropriation and cultural appreciation.


  1. Interactive ‘Myth or Fact?’ Activity, also in Appendix C. (
  2. Wab Kinew’s Soapbox (


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Pulling Together: Manitoba Foundations Guide (Brandon Edition) Copyright © by Manitoba Foundations Group is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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